Ko Te Kore - the child has potential
I was fortunate to attend a workshop facilitated by Rita Walker & Jacqui Brouwer which unpacked the assessment framework Te Whatu Pōkeka. Some of you may be familiar with this kaupapa Māori assessment resource, however, many of you may not yet have had the chance to engage with it. This workshop was the catalyst for me to seek more knowledge with the aim of being able to truly value the language, culture and identity of tamariki. My hope is, that this article will make you curious and inspire you to want to investigate Te Whatu Pōkeka further, with the aim of incorporating its kaupapa into your teaching practice
I’d like to start by sharing one of the issues that Rita raised: that te reo Mā ori is often translated but should in fact be
interpreted. Mā ori language is a taonga because every word has a whakapapa, where it has come from, and different
For example when we translate tamariki it means ‘child’:
tama - sons
riki - sons of chiefs
ariki - tamaariki - chiefly knowledge
ariki - the realms
However, the same word interpreted becomes ‘precious little ones, loved’
ta - Blueprint, image, representation, impression - Whakapapa, Ruomoko - the trembles are Ruamoko (the unborn
child) the deity of tamoko (patterning anywhere on your body). Ruamoko is the guardian of tamoko, who has the ability
to change the landscape - children are powerful. Ruamoko is fickle - children fickle. Ruamoko is also the deity of
eruptions - the child is a real Ruamoko. Tamoko - representing you, your stories, your history, your whakapapa.
tama - Derivative of tama-nui-te-ra (the sun), ana atua (spiritual guardian) depicted by the sun, which provides light and
warmth which we can’t live without - the same as our children.
ama - Balance, stability, consistency (ama - a specific type of waka, an outrigger providing balance) children bring
balance to our lives.
ariki - chiefly status, devine being
riki - young shoot connected to a root system; a metaphor for whakapapa
(riki - seed potatoes) they are rooted in their history.
(all translations taken from Walker & Bouwer workshop notes)
You can see how different the translation and interpretation are from one another, how they can impact on your view of something. It’s just a reminder to slow down and take time as a team, to unpack the whakapapa behind the words you use in your te ao Mā ori journey.
In Te Whatu Pō keka there are three aspects to the framework. Walker writes: “[T]he first part of the assessment framework which argues that children come with ways of knowing the world (mohiotanga), that they learn (mā tauranga) through experiences and challenges and that they seek and gain clarity (maramatanga) from the achievements, accomplishments and failures they encounter as they learn and grow.
The second part of the framework argues that Mā ori children possess a number of attributes derived from their history which spans back through time and space [wairua, mana, mauri] [...]. This means that the Mā ori child has a way of being, which in turn requires that adults working with and alongside these children must have an in-depth understanding of the children's contexts in order to plan culturally and socially responsive programmes
Adult responsibilities is the third part of the framework which focuses on providing appropriate contexts of learning, drawing on knowledge relevant to the context, planning and implementing programmes and providing critique and analysis. This indicates ways of doing ” (Walker, R. 2008, p.9, my emphasis and addition). As teachers, getting to know each child, their whakapapa and their kō rero hitori is paramount, if we want to really
discover who they are. For some time now, many centres have been asking their whā nau to share their child’s whakapapa or pepeha with them, as a way of building relationships with whā nau, however, many of these taongo get filed away in the child’s portfolio or on the walls of the centre, once the enrollment process is over and the only
revisiting that occurs is by the child. I began thinking about how well we acknowledge, respect and value all that the
childern know and all that they bring with them, their whā nau, their history, their whakapapa? We need to be thinking
about how whā nau know that we truly value what they have shared with us?
Teaching teams that have unpacked Te Whatu Pō keka have begun to write bicultural assessment documentation that incorporates the concepts mohiotanga, matauranga, and maramatanga. They are helping to unpack the child’s kete, their ‘funds of knowledge’ and they are using what they discover to help them create a learning environment that is supportive, not only of that child but of whā nau, hapū and iwi also. Their Learning Stories are one of the ways they are letting whā nau know that they value what has been shared with them. Their words have had the power to build learning partnerships. Teaching and assessment must be a collaborative activity where whā nau and kaiako both have a valued
contribution and we must be mindful to write Learning Stories that are thoughtful, meaningful, respectful and inclusive, remembering to interpret not translate te reo Māori.
Ministry of Education (2009). Te Whatu Pōkeka: Kaupapa Māori Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars.
Wellington: Learning Media.
Walker, R. (2008), The Philosophy of Te Whatu Pō keka: Kaupapa Mā ori assessment and learning exemplars. The First
Years. Ngā Tau Tuatahi (10):2, pp. 5-10.